In China’s northwest Shaanxi Province lies the Shimao Ruins where researchers recently discovered 48 human skulls. In a city archaeologist believe was built about 4,300 years ago and abandoned 300 years later, the discovery suggests it was a location where an outbreak of mass violence or ethnic conflict occurred. Two caches were found-each containing 24 skulls-located on the front of the east gate of the city and along the eastern wall of the city. Archaeologist suggest the skulls are related to religious ceremonies conducted prior to the ground-breaking construction of the neolithic city. Without diminishing the report, it is interesting to note the seemingly conflicting hypothesis as to why the skulls are there. Was it a mass site of violence or was it a ritualistic sacrifice? Based on the article it appears anthropologist have not yet fully processed the significance of the find. To be certain, this is a compelling event for anthropologist, archaeologist, and historians. I’m interested to see what type of folklore developments stem from this.